We have been researching solutions to reduce global mortality from pneumonia for over 20 years. Supplying these fully human anti-pneumococcal monoclonal antibodies to the industry is unlocking new drug development and diagnostic possibilities to combat this illness
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Micaela Scobie is the Chief Science Officer at Immune Diagnostics, where she directs research and product development, including oversight of research contracts, product growth, and scientific advancement within the company.
Micaela is an experienced scientist with a demonstrated history of working in the biotechnology industry. She is skilled in R&D, data analysis, and immunological assays, with a Ph.D. focused in Immunology from Clemson University. Micaela helps individuals and companies answer their research questions and develop strategies to accomplish these goals.
Impact Of PCV13 Vaccination On Pneumococcal Colonization In Mother-Infant Pairs
Pneumococcal disease remains a major pathogen, causing invasive and non-invasive infections in young infants and children. In the United States, the PCV13 (1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F) vaccine is administered to infants and children at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age as routine standard of care. The introduction of PCV13 in 2010 led to a tremendous decrease in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in young children [1,2]. The vast majority of these IPDs are caused by vaccine serotype (VT) pneumococci , and most of the remaining cases are now due to non–13-valent PCV (PCV13) types (NVSTs) [3-9]. Colonizing bacteria can be a precursor for an invasive disease in young children and individuals with weak immune systems [10- 12]. Thus, concerns remain regarding increasing rates of nasopharyngeal colonization (NP) with replacement non-vaccine serotypes (NVSTs) and the potential for IPD or non-IPD diseases, including otitis media and conjunctivitis.
Indeed, the pneumococcal disease spectrum can encompass several clinical presentations of IPD: bacteremic pneumonia; bacteremia without an identified source; meningitis; and, less frequently, osteoarthritis, peritonitis, or cellulitis. Although few serotypes (1, 3, 5, 7F, 14, 19A) were known to cause bacteremic pneumonia cases worldwide, prior to PCV implementation , a large number of serotypes were identified causing pneumococcal meningitis, both before and after PCV implementation . Profound changes in the distribution of serotypes causing meningitis were observed following introduction of PCV13. After PCV13 implementation, 87.9% of meningitis cases were found to be caused by non-PCV13 serotypes . Some serotypes have also been described as having higher disease potential than others in the literature [15-17]. Little is known about colonization with vaccines or NVST in vaccinated children and their adult household members following the PCV13 vaccination of children. The impact of colonization on the prevalence of otitis media in these children following PCV13 vaccination is also not well known. The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency of specific serotypes of pneumococci colonizing nasopharynges in infants and children and their adults before and after PCV13 vaccination. The secondary objective was to determine if any correlation or association existed between colonization status and incidence/prevalence of otitis media in these children.